Research Publications

A A Tanimola


  • Dr. Lynne R. Baker 
  • Dr.  Oluseun S. Olubode
  • Dr.  Adebowale A. Tanimola (April, 2014)
  • Dr.  David L. Garshelis

TITLE: Role of local culture, religion, and human attitudes in the conservation of sacred populations of a threatened ‘pest’ species



Indigenous belief systems and informal institutions that result in the conservation of wild species or sites exemplify biocultural conservation. The erosion of cultural beliefs and practices can have adverse, often severe, consequences for biodiversity. We explored the relationships among informal institutions, religion, and human attitudes toward sacred populations of a threatened, endemic species, Sclater’s monkey (Cercopithecus sclateri), in two communities in southeastern Nigeria. Due to habitat loss and hunting pressure across the species’ range, monkeys in these two sites live alongside people, raid farms and gardens, and are commonly viewed as pests. Using structured (n = 410) and semi-structured (n = 21) interviews, we examined factors influencing residents’ views of the monkeys, mechanisms affecting adherence to social taboos against harming monkeys, and implications for conservation. Our analyses revealed that most residents, particularly those from one community, women, and farmers, held negative opinions of the monkeys. Crop and garden raiding by monkeys had the most adverse effect on people’s attitudes. Although the adoption of Christianity weakened residents’ views regarding the no-killing taboos, continued adherence to the taboos was particularly influenced by supernatural retribution in one site and community disapproval in the other. Only one community widely conferred symbolic importance on the monkeys. Such site differences illustrate the value of local cultural understanding in conservation. Pre-intervention studies of this nature allow for the development of locally and culturally sensitive conservation programs, as well as better-informed assessments of what interventions are most likely to be effective.


Cercopithecus sclateri Crop raiding Human-wildlife conflict Nigeria Primate Taboo

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  1.  Dr. Lynne R. Baker1,*,
  2. Dr. Adebowale A. Tanimola (2014) and
  3. Dr. Oluseun S. Olubode3

TITLE: Sacred populations of Cercopithecus sclateri: Analysis of apparent population increases from census counts



The development of effective conservation and management actions for populations of wild species generally requires monitoring programs that provide reliable estimates of population size over time. Primate researchers have to date given more attention to evaluating techniques for monitoring primates in natural habitats compared to populations that occur in villages or urban areas. We conducted censuses to estimate the abundance and density of two sacred, village-dwelling populations (Lagwa and Akpugoeze) of Sclater's monkey (Cercopithecus sclateri), a threatened species endemic to southeastern Nigeria, and compared these data to previous census results. We recorded population increases in both sites: a 66% increase over 4½ years in Lagwa (from 124 to 206 individuals) at an annual rate of 10.2%, and a 29% increase over 4 years in Akpugoeze (from 193 to 249 individuals) at an annual rate of 5.7%. Mean group size also increased in both sites. Density in Lagwa was 24.2 individuals/km2, and density in a core survey area of Akpugoeze was 36–38 individuals/km2. Our results may have been affected by monkey ranging and grouping patterns and improved detectability due to our revised census technique, which included secondary observers. With further work on methodology for censusing populations that occur in human-settled environments, techniques can be refined and customized to individual sites for more accurate estimates. Our investigation of Sclater's monkey in Lagwa and Akpugoeze, two sites critical for conservation of the species, indicated that both of these populations have increased, and neither faces immediate risk of extirpation. Such population growth, while encouraging, will likely exacerbate human–monkey conflict and thus should be understood in terms of potential socioeconomic impacts. Am. J. Primatol.


  • conservation;
  • monitoring;
  • Nigeria;
  • Sclater's monkey;
  • survey;
  • taboo


  • Author(s): Tanimola, A. A.; Fawole, B.

TITLE: Identification and quantitative composition of nematicidal ingredients in leaves of some Aloe species.



 Phytochemical and infrared analyses were carried out for eight Aloe species: Aloe schweinfurthii (ASF), Aloe succrotina (AST), Aloe vera (AVR), Aloe chinensis (ACS), Aloe arborescens (AAR), Aloe keayi (AKY), Aloe macrocarpa (AMC) and Aloe schweinfurthii x Aloe vera (ASV) that showed nematicidal activity in in vitro on Meloidogyne incognita. The phytochemical analyses revealed that the Aloe species had similar phytochemicals: tannins, saponins, flavonoids, cardenolides, phenols, alkaloids and anthraquinones. However, total phenol (14.3 mg/g), tannins (14.5 mg/g) and saponins (59.8 mg/g) were highest in AKY than in other aloes. Flavonoid content (3.7 mg/g) was highest in AAR while alkaloid content was highest in AST. The infrared analyses revealed that the Aloe species had similar functional groups; amines, hydroxyl, unsaturated aromatic compounds, ketone, aldehyde and phenol. The nematicidal potentials of these Aloe species might be due to the type and quantity presence in these phytochemicals. The presence of the nematicidal principles identified in Aloe species used in the management of M. incognita.



Author(s): Dr. Tanimola, A. A.; Fawole, B.


TITLE: In vitro nematicidal activity of some Aloe species extracts on eggs and second-stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita.



 The nematicidal activity of acetone extract (AE) and water extract (WE) of leaves and roots of Aloe schweinfurthii (ASF), Aloe succrotina (AST), Aloe vera (AVR), Aloe chinensis (ACS), Aloe arborescens (AAR), Aloe keayi (AKY), Aloe macrocarpa (AMC) and Aloe schweinfurthii x Aloe vera (ASV) on egg-hatching and mortality of second-stage juveniles (J<sub>2</sub>) of Meloidogyne incognita was investigated in vitro. Extracts were tested at concentrations of 50,000 mg/kg and 25,000 mg/kg in an experiment laid out in completely randomized design in the laboratory. Data were collected on inhibition of egg-hatching, mortality of juveniles and analyzed using ANOVA (P ⩽ 0.05). Both concentrations of Aloe species extracts inhibited egg-hatching and second-stage juveniles mortality was observed significantly when compared with water control. The AE of AKY leaves at 50,000 mg/kg was the most effective in egg-hatching inhibited (95.4±1.7%), followed by AVR (94 ± 0.8%) and AST (88 ± 1.4%). Water extracts of leaves of AKY, AVR and AST inhibited egg-hatching by 85.5±1.2%, 77.8 ± 0.7% and 81±1.3%, respectively. The AE of AKY, AVR, AST and WE of AKY leaves at 50,000 mg/kg were the most effective in J<sub>2</sub> mortality with 100% recorded at 48 hr after exposure to extracts. The AE extracts of AKY, AVR, AST and WE of AKY and AVR roots at 50,000 mg/kg had 100% J<sub>2</sub> mortality at 72 hrs. This study reveals that Aloe species have nematicidal activity and used in the management of M. incognita.




  1.  Dr. Lynne R. Baker1,*,
  2. Dr. Adebowale A. Tanimola2,
  3. Dr. Oluseun S. Olubode3,† and
  4. Dr. David L. Garshelis1,4

TITLE: Distribution and abundance of sacred monkeys in Igboland, southern Nigeria.



Although primates are hunted on a global scale, some species are protected against harassment and killing by taboos or religious doctrines. Sites where the killing of sacred monkeys or the destruction of sacred groves is forbidden may be integral to the conservation of certain species. In 2004, as part of a distribution survey of Sclater's guenon (Cercopithecus sclateri) in southern Nigeria, we investigated reports of sacred monkeys in the Igbo-speaking region of Nigeria. We confirmed nine new sites where primates are protected as sacred: four with tantalus monkeys (Chlorocebus tantalus) and five with mona monkeys (Cercopithecus mona). During 2004–2006, we visited two communities (Akpugoeze and Lagwa) previously known to harbor sacred populations of Ce. sclateri to estimate population abundance and trends. We directly counted all groups and compared our estimates with previous counts when available. We also estimated the size of sacred groves and compared these with grove sizes reported in the literature. The mean size of the sacred groves in Akpugoeze (2.06 ha, n=10) was similar to others in Africa south of the Sahel, but larger than the average grove in Lagwa (0.49 ha, n=15). We estimated a total population of 124 Sclater's monkeys in 15 groups in Lagwa and 193 monkeys in 20 groups in Akpugoeze. The Akpugoeze population was relatively stable over two decades, although the proportion of infants declined, and the number of groups increased. As Sclater's monkey does not occur in any official protected areas, sacred populations are important to the species' long-term conservation. Despite the monkeys' destruction of human crops, most local people still adhere to the custom of not killing monkeys. These sites represent ideal locations in which to study the ecology of Sclater's monkey and human–wildlife interactions. Am. J. Primatol. 71:574–586, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  • Keywords: Cercopithecus sclateri;
  • Cercopithecus mona;
  • Chlorocebus tantalus;
  • conservation;
  • Nigeria;
  • taboo

Version of Record online: 30 APR 2009

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