Research Publications

Alubabari Desmond Nbete

  1. Author:  Alubabari Desmond Nbete; Nengi Doreen Greene

Title: Politico-Ethical Appraisal of the Nigerian State as the Actuality of Concrete Freedom: AKantian Perspective - American International Journal of Social Science Vol. 2 No. 2; March 2013


Abstract: In the 19th century, G. W. F. Hegel in his Philosophy of Right wrote that “the state is the actuality of concrete freedom.” The logical import of that assertion is that individuals lack concrete freedom outside the civil state. It further implies that the state, for all practical purposes, is meant to protect the freedom of its individual members. All  states  can thus be  understood  to  be  the  product  of  a  compact  or  covenant  and  the  Nigerian  state  is  no exception  to this  rule.  A  logical  outcome  of  this  contract  then  is  that  the  citizens  of  the  instituted  state  must possess an actual freedom which the state is required to protect and preserve at all costs. This paper, therefore, conducts an assessment of the authenticity of freedom as expressed in the Nigerian state, using Kantian political and ethical thought as a guide.


Keywords: Morality, Kant‟s Categorical Imperative, Freedom, autonomy, Will, Nigeria, Politics


  1. Author:  Nbete, Alubabari Desmond

Title: Peace, Conflict Management and Conflict Resolution as Key Variables in Sustainable Development in Niger Delta. - Culture & Religion Review Journal . 2013, Vol. 2013 Issue 1, p16-34. 19p.



The quest for peace has been one of the major concerns of civilized societies all over the world. Its importance cannot be over-emphasized. Every individual person needs to experience peace in order to reason well and function well as a human being. Peace is also necessary for healthy living. Those who are brazenly lawless do so in the mistaken and selfish pursuit of their own benefit. Generally, man has a natural inclination towards peace and a corresponding aversion to conditions that bring various forms of discomfort. Even when some spiritually minded persons choose to go through bodily pains and persecution for the sake of their beliefs and faith, such experiences are deemed to be temporary, and are regarded as part of the requirements for an enduring and, for some eternal, peace. Conflict in the society negates peace. Focusing substantially on the Niger Delta region on Nigeria, this paper argues that the attainment of peace is not only a goal of development but also a basic condition for social progress and other social activities that promote development. Yet, it is pretty elusive to completely avoid all forms of conflict between people in the society. It is, therefore, suggested that appropriate and effective measures should be taken to keep and build peace where it reigns and to manage and resolve the conflicts that may occur from time to time. Some recommendations are also made as measures for reducing conflicts, promoting peace and enhancing sustainable development.


  1. Author:  Desmond Nbete, Alubabari

Title: Ogoni as an Internal Colony: A Critique of Imperialism. - Ethics & Critical Thinking Journal . 2012, Vol. 2012 Issue 2, p150-179. 30p.



Ogoniland is a geo-cultural rural enclave within the Nigerian state, located in the Niger Delta region. The discovery and commercial production of mineral oil in the area date back to the mid-1950s. Within a period of about 34 years, some 634 million barrels of oil were produced in the area, yielding an estimated thirty billion dollars in earnings for the Nigerian State. Yet, amidst the crisscrossing network of oil pipelines, depleted land and environment, and for all the wealth it generates for the multinationals and the Nigerian state, Ogoniland remains one of the most underdeveloped regions in Nigeria. The region constitutes a periphery within the emerging Nigeria's capitalist economy, characterized by a dual class structure with the dominant groups constituting the ruling class and the minorities-the majority of them in the South-as subordinates. Worse still, within the South the Ogonis constitute a minority within minority, as they are further exploited by an internal ruling class. Political and cultural hegemony go hand-in-hand with economic inequality. This paper explains this situation, not as a reflection of natural disparities in geographical patterns of distribution of natural resources, but as manifestations of the phenomenon of internal colonialism. It further explores the link between this phenomenon and western imperialism.


  1. Author:  Alubabari Desmond Nbete

Title: The Social Contract Theory: A Model for Reconstructing a True Nigerian Nation-State - International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Vol. 2 No. 15; August 2012



The ideal purpose of the state has been variously conceived in political theory, leading to competing theories of state, one  of  which  is  the  Social  Contract  Theory.  With  its  earliest  systematic  postulation  in  the  political philosophy  of  Thomas  Hobbes,  this theory  gained  much  currency  in  the  modern  era. Although it  was  briefly eclipsed towards the turn of that era after Kant, it has been revived in contemporary political discourse, such as it is posited by John Rawls. The Social Contract Theory is both a theory of morality as well as a theory of the state. This study focuses on the latter dimension of the theory, in which it attempts to provide philosophical basis for the existence of the state and offers justifications for political obligation. It regards the state as the product of a pact or  covenant.  Perhaps  most  importantly,  it  offers  a  rational  framework  for  reconciling  the  imperatives  of governmental  authority  with  the  rights  of  the  governed. It  follows from  this  theory  that the  Constitution  of  the state must originate from the people or at least, according to some versions of it, be a hypothetical expression of their rational will. From that premise, this work suggests that the Nigerian state should be governed on the basis of commonly shared principles of justice. It goes further to argue that the Social Contract Theory of the state is an ideal model for reconstructing Nigeria into a truly united nation-state.


Keywords: Social Contract, State, Community, Society, Nation-State, Political Obligation, Authority.


Authors: Stephen O. Aigbonoga and AlubaBari Desmond Nbete, Ph.D.

Ttitle: A Philosophical Appraisal of Gandhi’s Philosophy of Satyagraha as Recipe for National Character


The Nigerian state has witnessed countless ethno-religious crises and insurgences most of which are traced to the adoption of wrong philosophies and methods in the management and resolution of conflicts in interpersonal and inter-group relations. This is deeply rooted in the absence of a national ideology or character. This paper reveals that political violence, ethnocentrism, political betrayal and revenge, political bigotry and corruption are fast taking the place of positive national character. It critically examines the tenets of Satyagraha through analysis of Gandhi’s texts and other articles relevant to this subject. The paper argues that Mahatma Gandhi's philosophy of Satyagraha provides a recipe for building a national character that would address the ideological lacunae in Nigeria. Satyagraha simply means 'soul force' or 'truth force.' As a concept, it connotes "refusing to submit to or co-operate with anything perceived as wrong technique of conducting struggle against oppression as well as deal with conflict." It is both a philosophy and a method which conceives of truth as a regulative principle of justice. It concludes that the philosophy of Satyagraha is in-tandem with building a viable national philosophy, with special emphasis on the value of non-violence, the virtue of care, and respect for the sanctity and dignity of life. Satyagraha is therefore recommended as a guiding principle in building a virile national character and sustainable democratic institutions.


Keywords: Satyagraha, National Character, Non-violence, Development, Justice, Virtue of Care

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