Research Publications

Atuboyedia W Obianime

Nigerian herbal remedies and heavy metals: violation of standard recommended guidelines

Igweze Zelinjo Nkeiruka, Orisakwe Orish Ebere *, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., Atuboyedia W Obianime

2012

Abstract

Objective

The growing popularity of herbal remedies approved by the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC), in Nigeria necessitates a critical re-evaluation of the risks associated with their use. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead and nickel contents of were analysed to ascertain their compliance with the recommended limits of the World Health Organization, European Union and United States Environmental Protection Agency.

Methods

Twenty four different Nigerian herbal remedies (NHR) in two types of pharmaceutical dosage forms – liquid and capsules, were sampled using basket market protocol in the Niger Delta, Nigeria, in December, 2010. The NHR were ashed before digestion using conc aqua regia HCL: HNO3 (3:1) and arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead and nickel were assayed with Atomic Absorbtion Spectrophotometer, AAS 205A. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead and nickel contents of were compared with the recommended limits of the World Health Organization (WHO), European Union (EU) and United States Environmental Protection Agency(USEPA).

Results

The highest concentrations of the heavy metals were found in the solid dosage forms whereas the lowest concentrations were found in the liquid preparations. Our study shows the percentage violation of the WHO and EU limits for the six metals were arsenic (0%); cadmium (58:3%); chromium (4.16%); cobalt (0%); lead (54.1%) and nickel (54.1%).

Conclusions

This study highlights the need for pharmaco-vigillance especially with respect to metalo-toxicity of Nigerian herbal remedies and need for in-depth risk assessment to understand the extent of the problem.


Keywords

  • Herbal supplements;
  • Heavy metals;
  • Metalo-toxicology;
  • Pharmacovigilance;
  • Risk assessments

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2221169112604304

 

 

The comparative effects of methanol extract of Phyllanthus amarus leaves and Vitamin E on the Sperm parameters of Male guinea pigs

Author: A.W. Obianime; F.I. Uche

Issue Date: 1-Jul-2009

Publisher: World Bank assisted National Agricultural Research Project (NARP) - University of Port Harcourt

Description: The effects of the methanol extracts of the leaves of Phyllanthus amarus on the sperm parameters of male Guinea pigs were investigated. The effects of Vitamin E on the sperm parameters were also investigated and compared to that of Phyllanthus amarus. The phytochemical screening of the leaves of Phyllanthus amarus was also carried out. The methanol extract of the Phyllanthus amarus leaf (50-200mg/kg) caused a decrease in the sperm count and motility, from 65.0± 2.80 and 66.7±0.33 to 46.0± 2.10 and 37.7± 1.50 respectively. However, this effect was less pronounced at higher doses of Phyllanthus amarus (400 and 800mg/kg). At 400 and 800mg/kg, P. amarus caused a decrease in sperm motility and count from 65.0±2.50 and 66.7± 1.5 to 52.7± 0.50 and 56.7± 0.80 : to 43.3±1.70 and 48.3±1.70 respectively . These effects were dose- dependent and comparable to the observed effects of Vitamin E (500IU) on sperm parameters of male guinea pigs. These were significant at P < 0.05 (ANOVA). In timedependent study, the observed effect of P. amarus (800mg/kg) and Vitamin E on the values of sperm count and motility at 28 day were almost the same. These values are 56.7± 3.30 and 48.3± 1.70 for vitamin E; 47.5±2.50 and 47.5± 2.50 for P.amarus respectively for sperm motility and count. These effects were time- dependent and statistically significant at P < 0.05 (ANOVA). Finally, the phytochemical screening of the leaves of Phyllanthus amarus revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, terpenoids, steroids, saponins and cardiac glycosides. This shows that the leaves of P .amarus do not largely contribute direct to the claims on the use of the aerial part of this plant by traditional medicine practitioners to increase/improve libido in men but it may have some indirect beneficial effects on this claim (like antioxidant activity) that mimic Vitamin E in both action and mechanism of action. However, further studies need to be done to investigate the contribution of the seeds of this plant in the improvement of libido in men and to isolate and characterize the active principles in the extracts of this plant. @ JASEM

URI: http://www.bioline.org.br/abstract?id=ja09006
http://www.bioline.org.br/ja
http://hdl.handle.net/1807/51674

 

 

ISSN: 2006-9820

Biochemical and hormonal effects of cadmium in female guinea pigs

 

Obianime A. W., Aprioku J. S.* and Ahiwe N. J.

Abstract

Cadmium is a heavy metal toxicant, present widely in our environment and workplaces. In this study, the effects of cadmium on some biochemical and hormonal parameters of female guinea pigs were investigated. Single Intraperitoneal injection (ip) injection of 0.2 to 8.4 mg/kg of CdCl2 was given to female guinea pigs in proestrus state and observed for 24 h.  Also, single ip injection of 3 mg/kg of CdCl2 was given to another set of animals that were observed for 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h. The animals were sacrificed at the end of each treatment period and blood samples were assayed for alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine, urea, progesterone, Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Lutenising Hormone (LH). Cadmium caused significant (p ≤ 0.05) dose- and time-dependent increases in the serum levels of ALP, urea, creatinine, progesterone, FSH and LH. The results indicate that cadmium affects female reproductive function in guinea pigs, which may be due to interruption of the endocrine function.

 

Key words: Cadmium, endocrine, hormones, proestrus.

http://www.academicjournals.org/journal/JTEHS/article-abstract/75929141026

 

 

Comparative Testicular Histopathological Effects of Artemisinin Derivatives and Some ACTs in the Guinea-pig

A.W Obianime, J.S Aprioku

2009

Abstract

 

Artesunate and dihydroartemisinin are artemisinin derivatives, which are effective antimalarial agents used in the treatment of malaria. Combination of artemisinins and other standard antimalarial drugs (ACTs) have resulted in better cure rates of Plasmodium infections. In this study, the histolopathological effects of half, normal and double clinical doses of artesunate, dihydroartemisinin, artesunate/amodiaquine, artesunate/sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine and artemether/lumefantrine on the testes of guinea-pigs were investigated. Mean testicular weight and circumference were both significantly (p<0.05) decreased dosedependently by artesunate/amodiaquine and artemether/lumefantrine, while the other agents decreased only testicular circumference without significant effects on the weight. Furthermore, artesunate and dihydroartemisinin caused dose-dependent distortions of the testicular architecture/histology, characterized by interstitial edema, poor sperm cell differentiation, moderate maturation arrest and impairment of spermatogenesis. The ACTs also caused general inflammation of the testes, with different degrees of edema and depressed sperm production. The clinical dose of artesunate/amodiaquine caused poor differentiation of sperm cells and damage of the seminiferous epithelium. In addition, the half clinical dose of artemether/lumefantrine caused poor development of germ cells, marked maturation arrest and reduced sperm production. There was also marked eosinophilia of the cytoplasm of the spermatocytes, shrinking of the nuclei of the spermatocytes and early signs of necrosis. The results obtained in this study may be due to oxidative damage on the testicular cells/tissues by the antimalarial agents, especially on the Leydig and Sertoli cells of the testis.

Keywords: Artemisinin, ACT, Sertoli, Spermatogenesis, Histopathology

ISSN: 1596-2393

http://www.ajol.info/index.php/jeca/article/view/55649

 

 

The Comparative Effects of Aqueous Extract of Tetracarpidium Conophorum Seeds and Proviron on the Biochemical Parameters of Male Guinea Pigs

FI Uche, AW Obianime, JS Aprioku

 

Abstract

 

The phytochemical screening and the effects of the aqueous extracts of the seeds of T. conophorum on the biochemical parameters of male Guinea pigs were investigated. The Biochemical parameters were assayed using Randox Diagnostic kits, Phenophthalin and colorimetric methods. The phytochemical screening was carried out using standard procedures. Phytochemical investigations revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, carbohydrate, alkaloids, terpenoids, steroids, volatile oils, saponins and cardiac glycosides. The aqueous extract of T .conophorum seeds (100-400mg/kg) caused a statistically significant (P< 0.05 ANOVA) decrease in the levels of total cholesterol, creatinine, urea, uric acid, prostatic, alkaline, and acid phosphatases. The highest reduction effect was obtained with uric acid at 400mg/kg of T. conophorum extract while the least effect was observed in total cholesterol. These effects were dose- and timedependent. This shows that the seeds of T .conophorum have hepatoprotective, nephroprotective and cardio protective properties. The study therefore, supports the claim on the use of the seeds of this plant by traditional medicine practitioners as a Cardio protective agent. Although further studies need to be done to isolate, identify and characterize the active principles in the seeds extracts of this plant.

Keywords: T. conophorum: proviron: biochemical parameters: male guinea pigs

Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Vol. 8 No 1 pp. 229 - 235 (September 2010)

ISSN: 0189-8434

http://www.ajol.info/index.php/njpr/article/view/73949

 

 

The effects of aqueous extracts of Tetracarpidium conophorum seeds on the hormonal parameters of male guinea pigs

2010

AW Obianime a, FI Uche

 

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1995764510600247

 

Abstract

Objective

To investigate the effects of the aqueous extracts of the seeds of Tetracarpidium conophorum and the effect of Proviron (12.5 mg/kg) (as standard) on the hormonal parameters of male guinea pigs, compare the effects of the seeds of Tetracarpidium conophorumand Proviron, and screen the phytochemical constituents of the seeds of Tetracarpidium conophorum.

Methods

The hormonal effects of the Tetracarpidium conophorum and Proviron were tested by hormonal assay, using enzyme immuno assay method. This was done by reaction of antibody with serum testosterone and testosterone label, magnetic solid phase separation and colour development step. Phytochemical screening was done using standard procedures.

Results

The aqueous extract of the Tetracarpidium conophorum seeds (100–400 mg/kg) caused a statistically significant increase (P < 0.05, ANOVA) in the level of testosterone of male guinea pigs, from (2.60 ± 0.06) ng/mL to (3.40 ± 0.05) ng/mL, (3.00 ± 0.60) ng/mL and (3.30 ± 0.45) ng/mL on the 7th, 14th and 21st day of the administration of the extracts, respectively. The highest increase was obtained after the 7th day of treatment [(3.40 ± 0.05) ng/mL]. These effects were very comparable to the effects of Proviron on the testosterone of male guinea pigs, which were obtained to be (2.80 ± 0.01) ng/mL, (2.90 ± 0.16) ng/mL and (3.10 ± 0.30) ng/mL on the 7th, 14th and 21st day, respectively. These effects were dose-and time-dependent. The optimum effect on testosterone level under dose-dependent study [(4.70 ± 0.45) ng/mL] was obtained at 300 mg/kg of Tetracarpidium conophorum after 7 days treatment. Finally, the phytochemical screening of the seeds of Tetracarpidium conophorum revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannin, alkaloids, carbohydrate, volatile oils, terpenoids, saponins and cardiac glycosides.

Conclusion

This study supports the claims on the use of the seeds of this plant by traditional medicine practitioners as a fertility agent. However, further studies need to be done to isolate and characterize the active principle(s) responsible for this activity in this plant.


Keywords

  • Tetracarpidium conophorum;
  • Hormonal parameters;
  • Male guinea pigs

 

 

2009

Ocimum gratissimum Linn. Reverses cadmium-induced toxicity of spermatic parameters of the male guinea-pig

JS Aprioku, AW Obianime, M Gogo-Abite

 

Abstract

 

The influence of the aqueous crude extracts of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. leaf on cadmium (Cd)-induced toxic effects on spermatic parameters of the male guinea-pig (GP) was investigated. In n=5, Cd (0-8mg/kg) caused a dose-dependent inhibition or reduction of various spermatogenic parameters namely-number of normal sperm cells: 55.75±2.02 ×106 to 7.50±1.19 ×106/ml; number of abnormal sperm cells: 2.25±0.25 ×106 to 8.25±2.18 ×106/ml and total sperm count: 58.00±1.96 ×106 to 15.75±2.63 × 106/ml; motility: 64.25±2.39 % to 26.50±1.71%; morphology: 5.75±0.75 % to 38.25±2.72 %; and a significant increase (P less than 0.05) in particulate and primordial sperm cell counts in the male GP. However, injection of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. extract after Cd administration had little or no significant effect on the above mentioned parameters. Pre-treatment with 5mg of O. gratissimum, with subsequent administration of cadmium, blocked or reversed the Cd-induced toxicities on the various spermatogenic parameters- motility: 26.50±1.71% to 53.25±2.14%; morphology: 38.25±2.72% to 8.75±1.25%; number of normal sperm cells: 7.50±1.19 ×106 to 27.25±1.60 ×106/ml; number of abnormal sperm cells: 8.25±2.18 ×106 to 5.25±0.63 x106/ml and total sperm count: 15.75±2.63×106 to 32.50±1.85 ×106/ml. The observed influence of O. gratissimum on Cd-induced toxicity may be the consequence of the antioxidant action of the plant extract on the spermatogenic apparatus of the organism.

ISSN: 1596-2393

http://www.ajol.info/index.php/jeca/article/view/48026

 

 

Melatonin and Alpha Lipoic Acid: Possible Mitigants for Lopinavir/Ritonavir- Induced Renal Toxicity in Male Albino Rats 2015

Author(s): Elias Adikwu , Nelson Braimbaifa , Atuboyedia Wolfe Obianime

Abstract:   (574 View)

Introduction: This study evaluated the effects of pretreatments with melatonin (MT), and Alpha Lipoic acid (ALA) on lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) -induced serum levels of creatinine (Cr), urea (U), uric acid (Ua) and kidney levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) in male albino rats. Effects of treatments with MT and ALA were also evaluated on baseline levels of the above parameters. Materials and Methods: Adult male albino rats orally received MT (10mg/kg), ALA (10mg/kg) and LPV/r (22.9/5.71, 45.6/11.4 and 91.4/22.9mg/kg) for 60 days. At the end of drug treatment animals were sacrificed, serum was extracted and evaluated for Cr, U, and Ua. Kidney was harvested and evaluated for MDA, SOD, CAT and GSH. Results: Treatment with MT and ALA significantly (p<0.05) decreased baseline serum levels of Cr, U, Ua and kidney MDA level while kidney levels of SOD, CAT and GSH were decreased when compared to the control. On the contrary, treatment with LPV/r significantly (p<0.05) and dose -dependently increased serum Cr, U, Ua levels and kidney MDA level while kidney levels of SOD, CAT and GSH were decreased when compared to the control. But pretreatments with MT and ALA mitigated LPV/r induced changes in all evaluated parameters. Pronounced mitigation was observed with pretreatment using a combination of MT and ALA. Conclusion: Observations in this study may be due to the oxidant effect of LPV/r and the antioxidant effects of MT and ALA. This study, therefore recommends MT and ALA as treatment or prevention for LPV/r induced renal toxicity.

Keywords: Kidney, Toxicity, Lopinavir/Ritonavir, Melatonin, Alpha Lipoic Acid, Rats,

 

http://www.phypha.ir/ppj/browse.php?a_id=1133&slc_lang=en&sid=1

 

 

2014

Evaluation of the Effects of Citrus aurantifolia (Lime) Juice in Lead-induced Hematological and Testicular Toxicity in Rats

 

J.S. Aprioku and A.W. Obianime

 

ABSTRACT
Background:
Citrus aurantifolia (Lime) is a citrus fruit and an excellent source of vitamin C and flavonoids which have unique antioxidant activities. This study evaluates the protective effects of Citrus aurantifolia (Lime) juice on lead-induced toxicity on hematological and reproductive functions and some organ weights in the male rat. Materials and Mathods: The animals were given Pb nitrate (4, 8 or 12 mg kg-1), or 0.1 mL Lime juice+8 mg kg-1 Pb nitrate, or vehicle daily for 28 days by oral gavage. Results: Lead treatment caused lymphocytosis with accompanying neutropenia and anemia. Also, lead significantly increased sperm motility, counts and viability but did alter percentage of abnormal sperm cells (morphology). Testicular weight, as well as liver and kidney weights were equally significantly reduced by lead treatment. Pretreatment with lime, 1 h prior to lead (8 mg kg-1) administration prevented hematological effects of lead. The Citrus juice also inhibited lead-induced reductions in liver and kidney weights but not on testicular weight. Lime pretreatment also inhibited lead-induced reduction in sperm count but did not affect sperm motility and viability. Conclusion: Citrus aurantifolia juice prevents lead-mediated bone marrow toxicity and may also prevent alteration of liver and kidney functions, which may be attributed to the antioxidants (flavonoids and vitamin C) in the plant. On the contrary, Citrus aurantifolia juice does not protect lead-induced testicular toxicity but may rather have potential for promoting testicular dysfunction, which mechanism remains unclear.

 

http://pharmacologia.com/abstract.php?doi=pharmacologia.2014.36.41

 

 

Toxicological Evaluation of Disulfiram, Copper Gluconate and Disulfiram/Copper Gluconate Combination on Renal Function in Rodents

Udeme Owunari Georgewill, Iyeopu Minakiri Siminialayi, Atuboyedia Wolfe Obianime   2015

ABSTRACT

This research work investigated and compared the chronic renal toxicological profile of disulfiram, copper gluconate and disulfiram/copper gluconate combination, in a 90-day time- and dose-dependent study in rodents. 88 rats weighing an average of 280 g divided into eleven groups consisting of 8 rats each were used for this experiment. The control groups received normal saline as placebo and 99.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (solvent control). Three oral doses (low, medium and high) of disulfiram (18.65 mg/kg, 37.3 mg/kg and 74.6 mg/kg), copper gluconate (3.75 mg/kg, 7.5 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg) and both drugs in combination were administered daily with those of the combination given 12 hours apart. Blood samples were collected via cardiac puncture in heparinised bottles and centrifuged, and the serum was decanted on 30, 45, 60 and 90 days for analysis. Renal function parameters—electrolytes (Na+, K+), urea and creatinine were evaluated. Results showed significant (p < 0.05) dose- and time-dependent increase in electrolyte level (Na+, K+), blood urea and creatinine respectively. The results are all pointers to the development of renal failure. It therefore appears that the DSF/CG combination is nephrotoxic and this effect is dose-dependent and synergistic.

KEYWORDS

Disulfiram, Copper Gluconate, Renal Function

 

http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?paperID=53913

 

 

The hormonal effects of halofantrine hydrochloride (Halfan), sulfametopyrazine/pyrimethamine (Metakelfin) and sulfadoxine/pyrimetamine (Fansidar) in male guinea pigs

AW Obianime, II Roberts

2009

Abstract

 

Background: The incidence of male factor infertility has been described by certain authors to be on the increase. The male reproductive function is highly sensitive to many xenobiotics such as drugs (Halofantrine hydrochloride, sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine and sulfametopyrazine/pyrimethamine) used in malaria therapy. Thus necessitating the investigation of the effects these agents on reproductive function.

Aim: To compare the effects of Halofantrine hydrochloride, sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine and sulfametopyrazine/pyrimethamine on the hormonal and sperm parameters.

Method: In 60 guinea pigs (500 ± 5 gm), the effect of different doses of halofantrine hydrochloride (4.0-16.0 mg/kg), sulfametopyrazine /pyrimethamine (12.5 mg/kg-50 mg/kg) and sulfadoxine /pyrimethamine (12.5 mg/kg-50 mg/kg) were studied. In n=120 animals, the effect of time (0, 24hrs, 7days and 28 days) to a single dose of each of these agents was studied. At the end of these times blood samples were obtained from the animals and hormonal analysis and sperm characteristics were investigated.

Results: Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine and sulfametopyrazine/pyrimethamine caused statistically significant dose-dependent decreases in serum prolactin levels from 127.5 + 21.1units to 95+ 5.0 and 90.3+ 7.94 units respectively at clinical doses. Halofantrine comparatively had little or no effect on prolactin. The order of activity on prolactin was sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine > sulfametopyrazine/pyrimethamine > halofantrine  hydrochloride.  Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (25 mg/kg) produced a statistically significant dose-dependent reduction in epididymal sperm number (ESN) from 75.33 ± 3.76 × 106  to 20.33 x 1.86× 106 million. The order of activity on ESN was sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine > sulfametopyrazine/pyrimethamine > halofantrine hydrochloride.

Conclusion: These differences may be due to the oxidative reactivity of these drugs and may explain some clinical symptoms experienced during and post treatment.

 

Key words: Halofantrine hydrochloride, Hormonal effects, Guinea pigs, Sperm count

ISSN: 0795-3038

http://www.ajol.info/index.php/phmedj/article/view/49257

 

 

EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL ANTI-DIABETIC ACTIVITY OF ACETONE EXTRACT OF CRINUM JAGUS BULBS IN ALBINO RATS

Olusayo A. Shorinwa*1, Omotayo O. Ebong2, A.W Obianime2, I. M Siminialayi2. 2016

Abstract
Crinum jagus bulbs are used as a form of therapy for various diseases in traditional medicine. Crinum jagus bulbs belongs to the onion family of Liliaceae. This study investigated the acetone extract of Crinum jagus bulbs for its anti-diabetic effects in rats. The plant extract was evaluated at 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg through the oral route for 14 days. Hypoglycaemic activity was evaluated in alloxan induced diabetic rats using glibenclamide as standard drug. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate (150mg/kg body weight). The results revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins, steroids, alkaloids, carbohydrates, reducing sugars and saponins. The extract exhibited a significant (P<0.05) reduction in blood glucose level at 250 mg/kg and 500mg/kg at 2hours during the acute study while it showed a significant (P<0.05) reduction in blood glucose level on day 1. The findings of this study show that the acetone extract of Crinum jagus may possess anti-diabetic activity as compared to the control.

Key words: Crinum Jagus, Anti-Diabetic, Alloxan, Glibenclamide.

http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227518

 

 

A Preliminary Study on the Effect of Abrus precatorius Linn on Reproductive Parameters in Female Rattus norvegicus, Wistar Strain

Ogbuehi, I H; Ebong, O O; Obianime, A W. European Journal of Medicinal Plantshttp://search.proquest.com/assets/r20161.5.0-10/core/spacer.gif7.3http://search.proquest.com/assets/r20161.5.0-10/core/spacer.gif (2015): 156-166.

Abstract (summary)

Aim: To investigate the effect of methanolic extract of seeds and leaves of Abrus precatorius on implantation, hormonal profile, reproductive index and sexual behavior in adult female Wistar rats.

Study Design: Female wistar rats were treated with A. precatorius extracts (30 and 60 mg kg-1) for 7 estrous cycles and mated. Mid-gestation, number of implantation sites and embryos were determined in half of the pregnant females while reproductive parameters were analyzed for the remaining animals, post parturition. For the libido and hormonal assay, sexual behavioral parameters were evaluated and serum samples assayed.

Results: A. precatorius seeds caused a decline in the fertility index, numbers of uterine implants, corpora lutea and live fetuses in a dose dependent manner. Administration of seed extract (30 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg) resulted in a 30.5% and 66.7% post implantation loss respectively; however the effect of extract on libido was not significant even at the higher dose. The seed extract (60 mg/kg) significantly reduced levels of FSH, LH, PG and E2 levels and increased prolactin level. Histology results of ovary showed significant reduction in folliculogenesis in all experimental groups, but external deformities in the pups were not observed. A. precatorius leaf extract promoted fertility by reducing Progesterone and E2 levels in a manner that significantly boosted FSH and LH levels; it also caused 44%, 24% and 80% increases in the litter size for the 30 mg/kg, 60 mg/kg and clomiphene treated groups respectively. The mounting frequency and lordosis quotient were significantly increased; perceptive and copulatory behaviors were remarkably noticed amongst treated rats. Laparatomy and histology showed an enhanced folliculogenesis and ovulation in treated rats.

Conclusion: A. precatorius seeds have anti fertility effect on female rats while the leaf extracts were very effective as a fertility enhancing agent.

http://search.proquest.com/openview/d51d9feedbd71f8232eb0424146665ae/1?pq-origsite=gscholar

 

 

2009

Effects of halofantrine, sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine and sulfametopyrazine/pyrimethamine on the concentration of serum phosphatases in male guinea pigs

A.W Obianime, I.I Roberts

 

Abstract

 

Background: New single and combined antimalarial therapies developed as a result of resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum raise new toxicological concerns and considerations.

Aims: To establish and compare the dose- and time-dependent effects of three clinically used antimalarials agents on serum enzymes; alkaline phosphatase, prostatic phosphatases and acid phosphatase tartarate.

Methods: Sixty male guinea pigs of average weight 500±5 gms were placed in twelve cages of five each. They were divided into four major groups, of three subsets each. The first group (control) received only water and food. The second, third and fourth groups of three cages of five animals each were given halofantrine hydrochloride (4.0-16.0 mg/kg), sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (12.5-50.0 mg/kg) and sulfametopyrazine/pyrimethamine (12.5-50.0mg/kg) respectively in increasing doses of half clinical, clinical and twice clinical doses. In the time-dependent experiment, the above stated protocol was repeated at different time intervals with a set of five animals each. Blood was taken at 24 hrs, 7 and 28 days respectively for biochemical analysis. Analysis of variance at 0.05 level of significance was used to test differences between groups.

Results: There were dose-dependent increases in alkaline phosphatases from14.7+0.58 to 38+2.0 IU/l (P = 0.046), 16.5+2.12 IU/l to 31.3+1.53 IU/l (p < 0.05) and 14.5+2.1 to 23+1.0 IU/l (P = 0.001) for sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, halofantrine hydrochloride and sulfametopyrazine/pyrimethamine respectively. The time-dependent results show a progressive increase in these values maximizing on the seventh day, with a reversal (decreases) on the twenty eight day.

Conclusion: These agents produced dose- and time-dependent effects on serum phosphatases.

 

Keywords : Antimalarials, Serum phosphatases, Toxicity

ISSN: 0795-3038

http://www.ajol.info/index.php/phmedj/article/view/52398

 

 

Structure-Activity-Relationship (SAR) of Artemisinins on some Biological Systems in Male Guinea Pigs

 

J.S. Aprioku and A.W. Obianime       2011

 

ABSTRACT:
Background: Artemisinin-based Combination Therapies (ACTs) are currently the first-line drugs used in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Consequently, the use of artemisinins is particularly high in areas with malaria endemicity like the sub Sahara. The present study investigated the effects of 3 frequently used artemisinin derivatives: artesunate, artemether and dihydroartemisinin (DHA) on biochemical, hematological and semen parameters in the male guinea pig, using different doses (half, normal and double therapeutic doses) of each drug. Artesunate and DHA were administered by oral gavage, while artemether was given by i.m. injection. Result: Serum prostatic acid phosphatase (ACPP) and glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) were significantly (p<0.05) and dose-dependently increased in artesunate (186 and 48.2%) and DHA (233.5 and 68.2%) exposed animals. In addition, DHA also caused significant dose-dependent elevations in Serum Glutamate-Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT) and triglyceride levels, while only triglycerides and both parameters were elevated significantly only in the double clinical dose animal groups of artemether and artesunate respectively. Furthermore, WBC counts in artesunate-, DHA- and artemether-treated animals were significantly and dose-dependently increased, compared to the control animals. The drugs caused 60, 78.2 and 50% increases respectively. Lymphocytes count was also significantly increased by 16.8, 21.7 and 20.5% by the drugs respectively, while neutrophils count was decreased by artemether (10.7%) and DHA (10.4%) at the double therapeutic dose. Furthermore, while there were no significant changes in the semen parameters of artemether-treated animals, there was significant (p<0.05) reductions in the epididymal sperm concentration and motility in artesunate- and DHA-treated animals, compared to the controls. These parameters were decreased by 24.4 and 23%, respectively in artesunate-treated animals and 48.9 and 55.1%, respectively in DHA-exposed animals.

Conclusions: Artemisinin derivatives are capable of causing alterations in biochemical, hematological and reproductive functions, which may be due to increased oxidative stress in the liver, blood cells and the testis. Furthermore, the toxicological effects of DHA>artesunate>artemether, which is attributed to differences in their chemical structures.

 

http://insightknowledge.co.uk/fulltext/?doi=IPHARMA-IK.2011.1.10

 

 

Reproductive parameters in a 90 day toxicity study of Smart Herbal Purifier® -a poly herbal supplement in male rats

Z N Igweze, O E Orisakwe, A W Obianime.   2014

Abstract
The study was to evaluate the testicular and epidydimal effects of Smart Herbal Purifier® (SHP) - a poly herbal supplement with a composition of Cassia alata 30% Morinda Lucida 30% and Nuclea Blend 40% ,in a 90 day repeated dose toxicity test in male Sprague – Dawley(SD) rats. The study was with control,48,240 and 480 mg/kg SHP treated rats. Sperm motility, debris generation, abnormal sperm morphology, sperm viability, testosterone, Follicular stimulating Hormone (FSH), luteinizing Hormone (LH), Prolactin, and malondealdehyde(MDA) levels as a measure of oxidative stress in the testes were analyzed. Histology of the testes was also examined. There was no significant difference in both Testicular Sperm Number(TSN) , Epididydimal sperm Number (ESN), the abnormal sperm morphology of both the control and SHP treated group. A significant increase was observed in the debris generated in the testes and epidydimis when control was compared to SHP treated groups. There was also a significant decrease in viability and motility in the testes and epidydimis when control was compared to SHP treated group. Testosterone, FSH, LH and Prolactin were not significantly different when control was compared to SHP treated group. Malondealdehyde was significantly increased when control was compared to the treated groups. Histology of the testes of the treated group showed necrosis of the seminiferous tubules. It is concluded that SHP has toxicological concerns in the male reproductive system.

Key words: Male reproductive hormones, sperm motility and viability, fertility, oxidative stress.

http://www.scopemed.org/?jft=19&ft=19-1401661970

 

 

Beneficial effects of melatonin and alpha lipoic acid on lopinavir/ritonavir-induced alterations in lipid and glucose levels in male albino rats.

  • Source: Journal of Medical Science . 2016, Vol. 85 Issue 1, p46-53. 8p.
  • Author(s): Elias, Adikwu; Nelson, Braimbaifa; Obianime, Wolfe Atuboyedia
  • Abstract: Introduction. The use of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) in the management of human immunodeficiency virus has been associated with alterations in lipid and glucose levels. This study was designed to investigate the effects of pretreatments with melatonin (MT) and alpha lipoic acid (ALA) on LPV/r-induced serum levels of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and glucose (GL) levels in male albino rats. Effects of MT and ALA were also evaluated on baseline serum levels of the above parameters. Male albino rats used for this study were orally administered with LPV/r (22.9/5.71-91.4/22.9 mg/kg), MT (10 mg/kg) and ALA (10 mg/kg) for 30 days. Material and methods. Animals were harvested at the end of drug treatment and serum levels of the above parameters were evaluated. Treatment with MT and ALA significantly (p &lt; 0.05) decreased baseline serum levels of TG, TC, VLDL-C, LDL-C and GL but, treatment with LPV/r significantly (p &lt; 0.05) and in a dose-dependent manner increased serum levels of these parameters when compared to the control. However, pretreatments with individual doses of MT and ALA prior to treatment with LPV/r decreased serum levels of TG, TC, VLDL-C, LDL-C and GL with more decreases observed in animals pretreated with combined doses of these antioxidants. Conclusion. Based on findings in this study, MT and ALA could be used as remedies for LPV/r-induced alterations in lipid and glucose levels.

http://web.a.ebscohost.com/abstract?direct=true&profile=ehost&scope=site&authtype=crawler&jrnl=08607397&AN=115309772&h=HpiG0sGrBIr65hH1C5C6JvpogCyQBn3PnO0vjmhJwQpt%2fVj4Fp6xb6%2bDBSJU%2bgT%2bFfLE9V3hKE9gP2VZULJi6w%3d%3d&crl=c&resultNs=AdminWebAuth&resultLocal=ErrCrlNotAuth&crlhashurl=login.aspx%3fdirect%3dtrue%26profile%3dehost%26scope%3dsite%26authtype%3dcrawler%26jrnl%3d08607397%26AN%3d115309772

 

 

Comparative Study Of Artesunate, ACTs And Their Combinants On The Spermatic Parameters Of The Male Guinea-Pig

AW Obianime, SJ Aprioku

2009

Abstract

 

Summary: In this study, the comparative effects of half, normal and double clinical doses of artesunate; artesunate/sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine; artesunate/amodiaquine and their combinants (sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine and amodiaquine) on the semen parameters- total sperm count, motility, morphology, debris and premature/primordial cell count of the male guinea-pig were investigated. The agents caused significant (p<0.05) decreases in total sperm count and sperm motility, with increases in abnormal sperm cells (morphology), debris and premature sperm cells. The effects were maximal at the subclinical doses and synergistic in the ACTs, compared to those of the individual partner agents. Artesunate, amodiaquine and artesunate/amodiaquine caused 54, 28 and 84% decreases in total sperm count, with 13, 31 and 64% decreases in sperm motility respectively. Conversely, the above drugs increased baseline morphology by 70, 30 and 264% respectively. Similar synergistic responses were obtained with artesunate/sufadoxine/pyrimethamine. These results may be explained in terms of the oxidative effects of these agents, through generation of free radicals, resulting in pathological damage to testicular structure/function.

http://www.ajol.info/index.php/njps/article/view/46372

 

 

2007

The Phytochemical screening and the effects of methanolic extract of Phyllanthus amarus leaf on the Biochemical parameters of Male guinea pigs.

AW Obianime, FI Uche

 

Abstract

 

The phytochemical screening and the effects of the methanolic extracts of the leaves of Phyllanthus amarus on some biochemical parameters of male Guinea pigs were investigated. Phytochemical investigations revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, terpenoids, steroids, saponins and cardiac glycosides. The methanol extract of Phyllanthus amarus leaves (50-800mg/kg) caused a statistically significant (P<0.05 student’s t-test) decrease in the levels of total cholesterol, AST, ALT, urea, uric acid, total protein, prostatic,
alkaline, and acid phosphatases. The highest reduction effect was obtained with uric acid at 400mg/kg of P.amarus extract while the least effect was observed in total cholesterol. These effects were dose- and time- dependent. This shows that the leaves of P .amarus have hepatoprotective, nephroprotective and cardio protective properties. The study therefore, supports the claim on the use of the aerial part of this plant by traditional medicine practitioners as a hepatoprotective agent. Although further studies need to be done to investigate the contribution of the seeds of this plant as a hepatoproctective and nephroprotective agent and to isolate, identify and characterize the active principles in the leaf extracts of this plant.

http://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/article/view/55199

 

 

2008

Antioxidant Activity of the Aqueous Crude Extract of Ocimum gratissimum LINN. Leaf on Basal and Cadmium-induced Serum Levels of Phosphatases in Male Guinea-pigs.

JS Aprioku, AW Obianime

 

Abstract

 

The antioxidant activity of the aqueous crude extract of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. leaf on the basal and traumatized (cadmium-induced) serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total acid phosphatase (ACPT) and prostatic acid phosphatase (ACPP) of the male guinea-pig (GP) were evaluated. Preliminary experimentation showed that the effects of the aqueous crude extract of O. gratissimum on basal serum phosphatases were slightly more in the oral than the intraperitoneal (i.p) route. Oral administration of 20mg of O. gratissimum caused a timedependent decrease in the basal serum levels of ACPT and ACPP without an effect on ALP values. The inhibitory effects compared to the control were maximum at 4 hours. Furthermore, O. gratissimum given orally, caused significant dose-dependent decreases (p<0.05) of the basal serum levels of ACPT and ACPP at p<0.05. Basal serum concentrations of ACPT and ACPP changed from 23.50±1.04 and 7.50±0.29 to 8.25±0.75 and 2.25±0.29 IU at 20mg, representing 65 and 70 % decreases respectively. In contrast, 0.25-8mg/kg of cadmium (Cd) given intraperitoneally, caused significant dose-dependent increases (p<0.05) in the phosphatase enzymes. However pretreatment with 5mg of the crude extract, which on its own had little effect on basal serum phosphatase levels, followed by i.p administration of Cd, caused a reversal of the Cd-induced dose-response curves on the various phosphatase levels to negative values. These results may be due to the oxidative and the antioxidative biochemical antagonistic properties of the agents used in these experiments. They may also be due to enzyme conformational changes and effects of eugenols and flavonoids in the crude extract of O. gratissimum.

http://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/article/view/55215

 

 

4β-PDBu contracts parenchymal strip and synergizes with raised cytosolic calcium

Author links open the overlay panel. Numbers correspond to the affiliation list which can be exposed by using the show more link.

M.Maureen Dale , Atuboyedia W. Obianime                     1987

Abstract

The effect of various concentrations of 4β-phorbol dibutyrate, (4-βPDBu) phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), and 4β-phorbol didecanoate (4β-PDD) were studied on the guinea-pig parenchymal strip. The order of potency, 4β-PDBu > PMA > 4β-PDD, was the inverse of their lipid solubility. 4β-PDBu, 10−9–10−4 M, caused a powerful, slow, sustained contraction starting within 2–3 min and reaching maximum in approximately 45 min, the maximum being 170% of the maximum histamine contraction. The responses to PMA and 4β-PDD were slower and less marked. 4α-Phorbol dibutyrate had no effect. These results differ from those reported for guinea-pig trachea. In calcium-free Krebs solution + EGTA (1 mM) the cumulative concentration-response curve to 4β-PDBu was still obtained but was slower and was diminished. A23187, ionomycin and vanadate also caused contraction, the respective concentration ranges being 10−7–10−5, 10−8–10−6 and 10−6–10−3 M. When a low concentration of 4β-PDBu, which on its own produced no effect, was given with a low concentration of A23187, ionomycin or vanadate, marked synergism was seen. These results are consistent with the model of smooth muscle contraction in which it was proposed that the initial response to stimulation is mediated by both the trisphosphate/calcium and diacylglycerol/protein kinase C pathways, while the sustained response is mediated by the diacylglycerol/protein kinase C pathway, only.

Keywords

  • Phorbol esters;
  • Smooth muscle (airway);
  • Protein kinase C;
  • Phosphoinositide;
  • Calcium

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0014299987904079

 

 

The effect of relaxants working through different transduction mechanisms on the tonic contraction produced in rat aorta by 4β-phorbol dibutyrate

  1. A.W. Obianime and
  2. M. Maureen Dale*

Version of Record online: 19 JUL 2012

Abstract

  • We have examined the effects of a range of smooth muscle relaxants on the maintained contractions produced in rat aortic rings by the protein kinase C activator, 4β-phorbol dibutyrate; these effects were compared with those on the contraction induced by the selective α1-adrenoceptor agonist, methoxamine. The phorbol ester, at 0.3 μm, gave a sustained contraction which was, on average, of approximately the same magnitude as the maximum contraction produced by methoxamine, 10 μm.
  • 2

The β-adrenoceptor agonist, isoprenaline (0.01–1 μm) caused a dose-related relaxation of the methoxamine-induced contraction but had no effect on the contraction induced by the phorbol ester.

  • 3

An activator of adenylate cyclase, forskolin (0.01–1 μm) produced a dose-related relaxation of the methoxamine-induced contraction and at 0.01–10 μm caused relaxation of the contraction induced by the phorbol ester. Similar results were obtained with the potassium channel activator, cromakalim (0.001–10 μm).

  • 4

An activator of guanylate cyclase, sodium nitroprusside (0.001–100 μm) caused a dose-related relaxation of both the methoxamine-induced and the phorbol ester-induced contraction, being more effective on the former than on the latter. Similar results were obtained with enprofylline (11000 μm).

  • 5

Methoxamine (10 nM-100 μm), given cumulatively, caused a dose-related contractile response. Pretreatment with isoprenaline (1 μm), enprofylline (10 μm) and nicorandil (1 μm) resulted in partial decrease of the subsequent response to methoxamine, while nicorandil (10 μm), forskolin (1 μm), sodium nitroprusside (10 μm) and cromakalim (1 μm) totally abolished it.

  • 6

The phorbol ester, given cumulatively, caused increasing contraction in the concentration range 30 nM-10 μm. Pretreatment with forskolin (1 μm), sodium nitroprusside (10 μm), isoprenaline (1 μm), enprofylline (10 μm), nicorandil (1 μm or 10 μm), or cromakalim (1 μm or 10 μm), resulted in partial decrease of the subsequent response to 4β-phorbol dibutyrate.

  • 7

These results are discussed in the light of the suggestion that protein kinase C may have a role in the ‘latch-bridge’ phase of smooth muscle contraction, and that inappropriate activation of protein kinase C may contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension and other conditions involving vasospasm.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1476-5381.1989.tb12000.x/abstract

 

 

2008

Effects of Vanadium Pentoxide on the Histological and Sperm Parameters of Male Guinea Pigs

FI Uche, AW Obianime, M Gogo-Abite

 

Abstract

 

The pharmacological effects of intraperitoneal administration of different doses of vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) on the histological and sperm parameters of male guinea pigs were investigated. Also investigated were the effects of oral pretreatment with different doses of vitamin E (a known protein kinase C inhibitor) on the V2O5 -induced responses of the testis and liver of male guinea pigs. In n = 5 experiments, vanadium pentoxide in the dose range of 4.5-12.5mg/kg caused destruction of the testicular and liver architecture. This was characterized by a reduction in spermatogonia, destruction of seminiferous tubules, necrosis of the testicular tissues, necrosis of liver cells, fatty cells infiltration and vacoulation. Oral administration/ pretreatment with vitamin E in the dose range of 500-2000I.U caused a reversal of the vanadium pentoxide –induced histological damages of the testis and the liver cells. Furthermore, in n = 5 animals experiments, Vanadium pentoxide (4.5-12.5 mg/kg/) caused a statistically significant increase in the percentage basal cell death, from 5.0 to 75.0 ± 1.0%, reduction in sperm motility from 90.0 to 31.0 ± 3.9%, reduction in sperm count from 80.0 x106cells/ml to 25.0± 4.0 x 106cells/ml and alteration in the spermatic cell morphology ( i.e. causing a change in the cellular structure of sperm cells and an increase in abnormal cells count) of the male guinea pigs. These inhibitory effects were significant at P < 0.05 (ANOVA). These effects were all dose- and time-dependent and may have a role in oxidative pathology of vanadium pentoxide.

 ISSN: 1119-8362

http://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/article/view/55512

 

 

Comparative study of artesunate, ACTs and their combinants on the biochemical parameters of male guinea-pigs

AW Obianime, JS Aprioku

2009

Abstract

 

In this study, the effects of different doses of artesunate, artesunate/sulfadoxine/ pyrimethamine, artesunate/amodiaquine and their combinants (sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine and artesunate/ amodiaquine) on the biochemical parameters- alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total acid phosphatase (ACPT), prostatic acid phosphatase (ACPP), urea, creatinine, uric acid and total cholesterol of the male guinea-pig were investigated. Basal serum ACPP value was increased from 3.50 ± 0.42 to 4.75 ± 0.85 and 4.75 ± 0.48 IU/L by amodiaquine and  sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine respectively at their subclinical doses. These values were significant at p < 0.05. Furthermore, the agents caused no significant effects (p < 0.05) on serum ALP and ACPT. Artesunate/sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine significantly increased (p < 0.05) serum urea at the 3 doses, while the effects of artesunate and artesunate/amodiaquine were biphasic, decreasing basal serum urea level at lower doses and increasing at higher doses. However, basal serum creatinine level was increased from 62.5 ± 6.7 to 89.8 ± 4.8 ìmol/L by sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine and decreased to 53.0 ± 0 ìmol/L by artesunate/amodiaquine at their subclinical doses, while the other agents caused no significant (p < 0.05) effects. Furthermore, control serum uric acid level was significantly decreased from 368.8 ± 10.0 to 318.3 ± 5.8, 306.0 ± 1.2 and 312.3 ± 2.6 mmol/L by artesunate, amodiaquine and artesunate/amodiaquine, after administration of half their clinical doses, respectively. Total blood cholesterol was also significantly reduced from 2.43 ± 0.13 to 2.1 ± 0 and 1.9 ±0 mmol/L after administration of clinical doses of amodiaquine and artesinate/amodiaquine, respectively. These biochemical changes may be due to oxidative effects induced by these agents.

 ISSN: 1684-5315

http://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajb/article/view/65215

 

 

Comparative study of artesunate, acts and their combinants on the hormonal parameters of the male guinea-pig

A.W Obianime, J.S Aprioku

2009

Abstract

 

In this study, the effects of half, normal and double clinical doses of artesunate; artesunate/sulfadoxine/ pyrimethamine; artesunate/amodiaquine and their combinants (sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine and amodiaquine) on the basal serum levels of testosterone, FSH, LH and prolactin of the guinea-pig were investigated. The results of this study showed that the agents caused significant decreases (p<0.05) in serum testosterone level, with varying effects on LH, FSH and prolactin. Testosterone level was decreased by artesunate (37%), sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (22%), amodiaquine (14%), artesunate/sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (41%) and artesunate/amodiaquine (49%) at the clinical dose, compared to the serum levels in control animals. Furthermore, artesunate and amodiaquine also caused moderate decreases in the serum concentrations of LH and FSH, without an effect on prolactin. The effects of these agents may be due to oxidative stress on the reproductive system of the organism.

Keywords: Testosterone, ACTs, artesunate, hormones and Guinea pig

 ISSN: 0794-859X

http://www.ajol.info/index.php/njps/article/view/52911

 

 

The effect of smooth muscle relaxants working through different transduction mechanisms on the phorbol dibutyrate-induced contraction of the guinea-pig lung parenchymal strip: Possible relevance for asthma

2016

A.W. Obianime, S.J. Hirst, M.M. Dale

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0952060089900203

 

Abstract

It has been suggested that protein kinase C activation may have a role in the maintained, ‘latch-bridge’ phase of smooth muscle contraction. We have examined the effects of a range of smooth muscle relaxants on the maintained contraction produced in the guinea-pig parenchymal lung strip by the protein kinase C activator, 4β-phorbol dibutyrate (4β-PDBu). The maximum histamine contraction (produced by 10 μM) was used as a standard and the effects of the smooth muscle relaxants were also studied on this histamine-induced contraction. After 4β-PDBu, 1 μM, had produced contraction, enprofylline, forskolin and papaverine caused concentration-dependent relaxation, producing total reversal of the contraction, while prostaglandin E2 and prostacyclin caused a concentration-dependent relaxation but less than total reversal. The concentrations required for the effects on the phorbol ester contraction were 10 to 100-fold higher than were necessary for relaxation of the maximum contraction produced by histamine. Isoprenaline, 1μM, a concentration which caused total reversal of the histamine-induced contraction, caused only 22% decrease of the phorbol dibutyrate-induced contraction and no further relaxation occurred with higher concentrations. Cromakalim — a potassium channel activator proposed as a therapy for nocturnal asthma — had virtually no effect on preparations pre-contracted with 4β-PDBu, 1 μM, or histamine, 10 μM, but caused about 70% and 20% reversal of the contraction produced by 3 μM histamine and 100 nM 4μ-PDBu respectively. When single doses of the relaxants were administered before a series of doses of 4β-PDBu given cumulatively, enprofylline, 1 μM, and aminophylline, 100 μM and 1 μM, caused a moderate right-shift of the phorbol dibutyrate concentration-response curve, but isoprenaline, 1 μM, was less effective, while cromakalim had no discernible effect. These results are discussed in the light of suggestions that inappropriate activation of protein kinase C in smooth muscle cells, may contribute to the pathogenesis of the late phase of asthma.

 

 

Ocinum gratissimum Linn., Cadmium and testicular structure of the male guinea-pig

JS Aprioku, AW Obianime, BC Didia

 

Abstract

 

The effects of the aqueous crude extracts of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. leaf and cadmium (Cd) on basal serum phosphatase levels of the male guinea-pig were investigated. Furthermore, the effects of the  aqueous crude extracts of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. leaf and Vitamin C on Cd-induced toxicity of the testicular/sperm cell structure of the male guinea-pig (GP) were also investigated. Ocimum gratissimum (0- 160mg) caused a significant inhibition/decrease (p less than 0.05) in basal serum phosphatase levels of the male guinea-pig. In contrast, cadmium (0.5-8mg/kg) caused a significant stimulation/increase (p less than 0.05) in basal serum phosphatase levels, which was positively correlated with a dose-dependent destruction of the testes and sperm cell histology/structure. Pretreatments with 5mg of O. gratissimum and 1.25mg/kg of vitamin C, with subsequent administration of cadmium, blocked/reversed the Cd-induced toxicities of the testes/sperm cell histology. These results may be explained in terms of the antioxidative properties and the post-receptor biochemical and molecular (transduction) events of O. gratissimumon Cd-induced responses.

Keywords: Histology; Sperm cell; Ocimum gratissimum leaf, testes

 

 ISSN: 1596-2393

http://www.ajol.info/index.php/jeca/article/view/48027

 

 

2009

The Phytochemical constituents and the effects of methanol extracts of Phyllanthus amarus leaves (kidney stone plant) on the hormonal parameters of Male guinea pigs.

AW Obianime, FI Uche

 

Abstract

 

The effects of the methanolic extracts of the leaves of Phyllanthus amarus on the hormonal parameters of male Guinea pigs were investigated. The phytochemical screening of the leaves of Phyllanthus amarus was also carried out. The hormonal parameters investigated are testosterone, Leutinizing and Follicle stimulating hormone. The methanolic extract of the Phyllanthus amarus leaves (50-800mg/kg) caused a statistically significance increase ( P < 0.001, ANOVA) in the level of Testosterone of the male Guinea pigs, from 2.3 ± 0.06 to 3.9 ± 0.05, 4.3 ± 0.6 and 2.8 ± 0.6 after the 7, 14th and 21st day of the administration of the extracts respectively . The highest increase was obtained after 14th day of treatment (4.3 ±.05). These effects were very comparable to the effects of Vitamin E on the testosterone of male Guinea pigs, which were obtained to be 3.0 ± 0.01, 3.1 ± 0.16 and 2.4 ± 0.30 for 7, 14th and 21st day respectively. These effects were dose- and time- dependents. The optimum effects (4.3 ±.05) were obtained at 400mg/kg of Phyllanthus amarus. Furthermore, the methanol extracts of Phyllanthus amarus (800mg/kg) caused an insignificant change in the levels of Leutenizing (LH) and Follicle stimulating (FSH) hormones from 3.1±0.22 and 1.6±0.50 to 3.0 ±0.08 and 1.5 ± 0.13
respectively. These effects were also comparable to the effects of Vitamin E on these hormones. Finally, the phytochemical screening of the leaves of Phyllanthus amarus revealed the presence of flavonoids,
tannins, alkaloids, terpenoids, steroids, saponins and cardiac glycosides. This may support or justify the claims on the
use of the aerial part of this plant by traditional medicine practitioners to increase/improve libido and reproductive function in men. Although further studies need to be done to investigate the contribution of the seeds of this plant in the improvement of libido in men; also to isolate and characterize the active principles in the leaf extracts.

 ISSN: 1119-8362

http://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/article/view/55250

 

 

Interactions between phorbol esters and agents which increase cytosolic calcium in the guinea pig parenchymal strip: direct and indirect effects on the contractile response.

  1. A W Obianime,                       1988
  2. S J Hirst and  
  3. M M Dale

Abstract

In the guinea pig parenchymal strip the cumulative concentration-response curve to 4 beta-phorbol dibutyrate (4 beta-PDBu) occurred over the range 10 nM to 10 microM, the response to 10 microM being 246 +/- 22% of the mean maximum histamine response. A "cocktail" of agents which inhibit synthesis and/or release of mediators (mepyramine, 1 microM; indomethacin, 1 microM; mepacrine, 300 microM; atropine, 10 microM; cimetidine, 10 microM; phentolamine, 10 microM; and quercetin, 50 microM) had no effect on the cumulative 4 beta-PDBu concentration-response curve, indicating that the response was not due to the release of noradrenaline, acetylcholine, histamine, platelet activating factor or eicosanoids. When the cumulative curves to vanadate and A23187 were measured in the presence of the cocktail of inhibitors, the vanadate response was unaffected, but the response to A23187 was reduced marginally. Threshold concentrations of four agents which increase cytosolic calcium (Bay K 8644, 1 and 10 nM; ionomycin, 100 nM; A23187, 100 nM; and vanadate, 3 microM) shifted the cumulative 4 beta-PDBu curve to the left. A threshold concentration of 4 beta-PDBu (30 nM) shifted the cumulative-response curve of vanadate to the left, had no effect on the Bay K 8644 response and left-shifted the A23187 curve whether the tissue was immersed in cocktail-containing Krebs' solution or not. Threshold concentrations of A23187 and 4 beta-PDBu added together in the inhibitory cocktail caused only a transient contraction as compared to a sustained contraction with 1 microM 4 beta-PDBu.

http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/247/1/262.short

 

 

The phytoconstituents and the comparative effects of aqueous extract of Irvingia gabonensis seeds and proviron on the biochemical parameters of male guinea pigs

2010

AW Obianime a, FI Uche

Abstract

Objective

To investigate the phytochemical screening and the effects of the aqueous extracts of the seeds of Irvingia gabonensis on the biochemical parameters of male guinea pigs.

Methods

The biochemical parameters were assayed using Randox Diagnostic kits, Phenolphthalein method and colorimetric method. The phytochemical screening was carried out using standard procedures.

Results

Phytochemical investigations revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, carbohydrate, alkaloids, terpenoids, steroids, volatile oils, saponins and cardiac glycosides. The aqueous extract of Irvingia gabonensis seeds (50–400 mg/kg) caused a statistically significant (P<0.05 ANOVA) decrease in the levels of total cholesterol, urea, uric acid, total protein, prostatic, alkaline, and acid phosphatases. The highest reduction effect was obtained with uric acid at 400 mg/kg of Irvingia gabonensis extract while the least effect was observed in total cholesterol. These effects were dose-and time-dependent.

Conclusions

This shows that the seeds of Irvingia gabonensis have hepatoprotective, nephroprotective and cardio protective properties. The study therefore, supports the claims on the use of the seeds of this plant by traditional medicine practitioners as a hepatoprotective and nephroprotective agent. Although further studies need to be done to isolate, identify and characterize the active principles in the seeds of this plant.


Keywords

  • Irvingia gabonensis;
  • Phytoconstituents;
  • Biochemical parameters;
  • Proviron;
  • Male guinea pigs

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1995764510600442

 

 

2009

The effects of ammonium metavanadate on biochemical hormonal, haematological and histopathological parameters of the female wistar rats

A.W Obianime, M Gogo-Abite, I.I Roberts

 

Abstract

 

The effects of different doses of Ammonium metavanadate on the biochemical, haematological, hormonal and histopathological parameters of stilbesterol treated female Wistar rats were investigated. Ammonium metavanadate in the dose- range 0-6mg/kg caused a bi-phasic and time-dependent response on the acid (total and prostate) phosphatase.. Furthermore ammonium metavanadate caused a dose-dependent inhibition of the serum alkaline phosphatases. The maximal inhibitory response at 5mg/kg of ammonium metavanadate was 40.0 ± 1.69 compared to 65.0 ± 0.94 control values. Ammonium metavanadate also caused a positively correlated biphasic response in the serum female hormonal concentrations with an initial increase, followed by a time-dependent decrease in the serum values of luteinizing (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin . Furthermore ammonium metavanadate also caused time- and dose- dependent effects on the haematological parameters. The effects were biphasic-increase within 72 hours and a reduction in the values of haemoglobin and packed cell volume within 7-28 days. The white blood count and lymphocyte counts were also reduced significantly at P £ 0.05. However the neutrophil counts were increased dose- and time-dependently. Finally, ammonium metavanadate caused a dose-dependent destruction of the liver and female reproductive organs namely the uterus, ovary and fallopian tubes. These were characterized by necrosis, oedema, eosinophilic deposits and vacuolation. These results may be explained by the oxidative effects caused by the free oxygen (O2) radical generated by the metavanadate ions.

Key words: vanadium, female hormones, blood count, histology, uterus

 ISSN: 0794-859X

http://www.ajol.info/index.php/njps/article/view/52905

 

 

2010

Effects of vitamins C and E pretreatments on cadmiuminduced serum levels of some biochemical and hormonal parameters in the female guinea pig

AW Obianime, NJ Ahiwe, JS Aprioku

 

Abstract

 

Cadmium is a widely distributed environmental pollutant and toxicant. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of vitamins C and E on cadmium-induced serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), urea, creatinine, progesterone, LH and FSH in the female guinea pig. Animals were given single doses of vitamins C (1.5 mg/kg) and E (50 mg/kg) per oral and (0 - 8 mg Cd/kg ip) for 24 h. Animals were sacrificed and the serum levels of the above parameters were measured. Also, the effects of pretreatments with vitamins C and E on Cd-induced serum levels of the parameters were determined. Serum levels of all parameters were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased in a dose-dependent manner in vitamins-treated animals, while they were increased in cadmium-treated animals, compared to the control animals. Furthermore, pretreatments with vitamins C, E and combination of both vitamins reduced the cadmium-induced serum levels of all parameters, which was most pronounced in animals pretreated with a combination of both vitamins, especially on ALP and progesterone levels. These results may be due to the oxidative and anti-oxidative properties of cadmium and the vitamins (C and E) respectively, acting through calcium and protein kinase C signal transduction pathways.

Key words: Antioxidants, cadmium, pretreatment and vitamins.

 ISSN: 1684-5315

http://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajb/article/view/92326

 

 

2009

Antioxidants, cadmium-induced toxicity, serum biochemical and the histological abnormalities of the kidney and testes of the male wistar rats

A.W Obianime, I.I Roberts

 

Abstract

 

The effects of different doses of cadmium (CD) on some biochemical, hormonal and histopathological parameters of the liver, kidney and testes of the Wister rate were investigated. Cadmium (CD) in the dose range 0-40mg/kg while causing a time- and dose-dependent decrease of the basal serum levels of alkaline phosphatese (ALP) also caused a dose-dependent increase in the serum concentration of the acid and
prostatic acid phosphatases. The value of the ALP changed from 148.7±1.0 IU/L in the control to 53.7±0.098 at 40mg/kg of cadmium. While the ACP and ACPT changed from 32.6±0.72 and 7 ±Units in the control to 54 and 17 units respectively at 40mg/kg of CD. Furthermore Cadmium also caused positively correlated dose- and time-dependent destruction of the histology of the liver, kidney and testes. These were characterized by vascular congestion, vacuolation, destruction of the seminal epithelial layers, focal necrosis of nucleus, Oedema of the seminal epithelia layers, focal necrosis of nucleus, oedema of the seminiferous tubules and reduction of spermatogenesis. CD also caused granular and eosinophilic cytoplasm, enlargement of sinusoids with kupffer cells, haemorrhage and apoptosis of cells. Finally pre-treatment with vitamin C (0.0015/kg), vitamin E (1.51/gm) and selenium (0.25mg) which on their own had little or no effects on the serum basal phosphatases, hormonal and histological stability caused a reversal of the cadmium-induced biochemical, hormonal and histological toxicities of the liver, kidney and testes. These results may be explained by the oxidational/antioxidational properties of these xeonobiotics and their mechanisms of actions.

Key words: vitamin C, cadmium, kidney, testes, hormones, antioxidants

 ISSN: 0794-859X

http://www.ajol.info/index.php/njps/article/view/52910

 

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